11253 Springville Boston Road
East Concord, New York 14055-9711
A.B., Swarthmore, 1951
B. Phil., Oxford, 1954 (Thesis: "Persuading")
Ph.D., Cornell, 1965 (Dissertation: Grammar and Criteria, Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1966.)
National College of Choueifat (Lebanon), Senior English Master, 1954-56
Cornell University, Instructor (part-time), 1956-57
University of Minnesota, Instructor, 1958-61
SUNY at Buffalo, Lecturer, 1961-66; Associate Professor, 1966-71; Professor, 1971-91; Distinguished Service Professor, 1991--
University of Michigan (Summer, 1962)
Friends World College (Fall, 1966)
University of Rochester (Spring, 1967)
Northwestern University (Spring, 1970)
San Diego State University (Spring, 1994)
1. Program Committee, Minnesota Philosophical Society, 1960
2. Vietnam Resolution Committee, Central Division, American Philosophical Association, 1966-67
3. Program Committee, Central Division of American Philosophical Association, 1971, 1987-88
4. Parliamentarian, Central Division of American Philosophical Association, 1970, 1971, 1974, 1978, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1988
5. Referee for NSF Special Projects Grant Proposals, 1972-74
6. American Philosophical Association Committee on the Defense of Professional Rights, 1973-76
7. American Philosophical Association, Sharp Prize Committee, 1991, 1993-5
SUNY at Buffalo:
1. Parliamentarian, Faculty Senate (ex officio on the Executive Committee), 1968-70, 1972-74, 1977-78; sometime parliamentarian, Graduate School
2. English Search Committee, 1966-67
3. Linguistics Advisory Committee, 1967-75
4. Linguistics Search Committee, 1967-68
5. Chairman, Art Search Committee, 1971-72
6. Faculty Senate Committee on Faculty Tenure and Privilege, 1971-73
7. President's Review Board on Appointments and Promotions, 1976-78
8. Chairman-elect, Faculty Senate, 1977-78, Chair; 1978-80
9. President's Academic Cabinet, 1978-80
10. Co-director, Conference on Naturalism and Rationality, April 1985
11. Co-director, Conference on Law and the Legitimation of Violence, March 1989
12. Co-director, Working Group on Conflict and Cooperation, 1988-89
13. Co-director, Graduate Group on Cooperation and Conflict Studies, 1989-95
14. Member, Graduate Group for German and Austrian Studies, 1980-95.
Department of Philosophy:
Committees sometimes chaired:
Hourani and Perry Scholarships
Various graduate student advisory committees
Admissions and Financial Aid
Acting Chancellor, Telluride Association, January-May, 1957
Board of Directors, Telluride Association Summer Programs, 1957-60; Chairman, 1957-58
Founding member of Citizens Council on Human Relations, Executive Secretary, 1963-64; Co-chairman, 1964-65
Executive Board, Niagara Frontier Chapter, ACLU, 1963-66
Council of Churches, Public Affairs Board, 1965-69; Program Board, 1967-68
Steering Committee, Peace and Social Action, Program of New York Yearly Meeting, 1966-69; Chairman, 1967-69
Committee of Oversight, Quaker Project on Community Conflict, 1966-69
Chairman, Advisory Committee, Police Training Workshop (Ford Grant) 1967-69
Chairman, Subcommittee on Education and Employment of the Ellicott-Talbert Service Committee, Community Welfare Council, 1964-65
New York Yearly Meeting (Quaker), Recording Clerk, 1985-88, 1989-92; Trustee, 1988-91
Buffalo Friends Meeting, Trustee, 1971-73; Clerk of Ministry and Counsel, 1968-69; Clerk, 1974-75, 1984-87
Board of Managers, Oakwood School, 1968-86; Trustee, 1971-86; President, 1973-75, 1977-79
Friends World College Committee, 1968-72; Council of Overseers of Friends World Program of Southampton College, Long Island University, 1998-2003.
Member of the Corporation, American Friends Service Committee, 1981-89
Trustee, Calasanctius Preparatory School, 1984-87
General Board, Pendle Hill, 1986-92
Clerk, Ad Hoc Committee on the Future of Powell House, New York Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, 1987-89.
Clerk, Ad Hoc Committee on the Function of the Yearly Meeting, New York Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, 199-2001.
Alternatives to Violence Project, Inc., Niagara Frontier Area Council, 1988--; New York State Board of Directors, 1992-5; Vice-President 1992-3; Secretary 1993-4; Coordinator for AVP at Wende Correctional Facility, 1992-2000.
Board, Quaker Bolivia Link, 2000-2001.
President, Bolivian Quaker Education Fund, 2002 —.
1. Alison Jaggar, "On Communication in Philosophy", 1970
2. Soren Teghrarian, "Meaning and Convention", 1971
3. Eugene Valberg, "Rational Belief and Self-Deception", 1973
4. Grahame Weinbren, "Wittgenstein's Theory of Personal Identity", 1975
5. Jonathan Ketchum, "The Structure of the Platonic Dialogue", 1981
6. M. A. Clay, "The Problem of Criteria for Empirical Knowledge", 1981
7. Ping-cheung Lo, "Humanity as an End in Itself: A New Interpretation of Immanuel Kant's Theory of Moral Obligation", 1982
8. Zosimo Lee, "The Political Conception of Justice: Rawls, Communitarianism, and Rational Conflict-Resolution", 1991
9. Seung Chong Lee, "Wittgenstein's Attitude Toward Contradiction", 1993
10. Eric Reitan, "The Christian Love Ethic", 1993
11. Annalisa Sassano, "From Huizinga to Wittgenstein. A Philosophical Analysis of the Notions of Play, Games and Language-Games", 1994
12. T. Jeffrey Scott, “Need as the Ground for Human Rights”, 2003
13. Laura Arcila Villa, “Philosophy and the Ordinary”, 2004
1. 1984-5 Conversations in the Disciplines: "Naturalism and Rationality", $2000.
2. 1988-9 Baldy Center: (with Dean Pruitt), $3870.
3. 1989-90 Vice President for Research: Graduate Group on Cooperation and Conflict Studies (with Frank Zagare), $9000 ($2000 plus graduate assistant).
4. 1990-1 Vice President for Research: Graduate Group on Cooperation and Conflict Studies (with Frank Zagare), $9000 ($2000 plus graduate assistant).
5. 1990-1 New York State Martin Luther King Institute for Nonviolence: To support a student conference on nonviolence at SUNY at Buffalo, including publication of the proceedings, $3600.
6. 1991-2 Vice President for Research: Graduate Group on Cooperation and Conflict Studies (with C. Holoman), $9000 ($2000 plus graduate assistant).
7. 1991-2 NEH: "Human Rights in Theory and Practice", a Summer Seminar with Claude Welch, $109,862.
8. 1992-3 Conferences in the Disciplines: Ethnic Conflict (with C. Welch), $2000.
9. 1992-3 Vice President for Research: Graduate Group on Cooperation and Conflict Studies (with C. Holoman), $2000.
10. 1993-4 Baldy Center: Human Rights and Ideology (with Pablo DeGreiff), $2000.
11. 1993-5 Vice President for Research: Graduate Group on Cooperation and Conflict Studies (with C. Holoman), $2000.
Honors and Awards:
SUNY Faculty Exchange Scholar, 1986-7
New York State/UUP Excellence Award, 1990-1
SUNY Distinguished Service Professor, 1991.
Friend in Residence, Pendle Hill, Spring Term 2001.
Conferences, Workshops, and Short Courses Organized:
1. Naturalism and Rationality (with Peter H. Hare), SUNY/Buffalo, March 28-30, 1985.
2. Program Committee, Western Division of APA, 1971, 1988.
3. Law and the Legitimation of Violence (with James B. Brady), SUNY/Buffalo, March 16-18, 1989.
4. Peace Bridge Conference, "Dispute Resolution in the 90's," Buffalo, NY, September 14-16, 1989 (member of organizing committee).
5. Human Rights in Theory and Practice (with Claude Welch), an NEH Summer Seminar
6. EthnicConflict and International Intervention (with Claude Welch and Jerome Slater), SUNY/Buffalo, April 16-17, 1993.
7. Philosophy in East Asia (with Peter H. Hare), University at Buffalo, April 9, 2000.
8. Wittgenstein, Week-long course, Pendle Hill (Wallingford PA), May 13-18,2001.
9. William James: Pragmatism and Religious Experience, Week-long course, Pendle Hill (Wallingford PA), February 2-7, 2003.
10. Servant Leadership, Day-long workshop, Friends Meeting of Washington (DC), February 26, 2003.
11. Simone Weil: Guidance for the Perplexed, Week-long course, Pendle Hill (Wallingford PA), March 1-6, 2004.
12. Wittgenstein for Quakers, a week-long workshop at the 2007 Gathering of Friends General Conference, June 30-July 7, River Falls WI.
Editorial Consultation (occasional) and Refereeing:
Cornell University Press
Oxford University Press
Northwestern University Press
University of Texas Press
Philosophy Research Archives
Wittgenstein Studien (mitausgeber)
National Science Foundation
Journal of Philosophical Reasearch
Papers Read at Professional Meetings:
1. The Goals of Teaching Philosophy, Minnesota Philosophical Society, 22 November 1958.
2. The Grammar of Prenominal Modifiers in English, Linguistic Society of America, 30 December 1958.
3. Necessary Existence, Western Division of American Philosophical Association, 4 May 1961.
4. Causal Judgments in History, Sec. L. of A.A.A.S., December 1961.
5. Some Queries for Mr. Putnam, Ibid.
6. Criteria: An Aspect of Wittgenstein's Logical Theory, Oberlin Colloquium, 20-22 April 1962.
7. Albritton on Criteria, Western Division of American Philosophical Association, May 1962.
8. Private Language Arguments, Eastern Division of American Philosophical Association, 28 December 1962.
9. Varieties of Use and Mention, Western Division of American Philosophical Association, 1 May 1964.
10. Teaching to Philosophize, Western Conference on the Teaching of Philosophy, 5 May 1966.
11. Privacy in Language and Metaphysics, Western Division of American Philosophical Association, 6 May 1966.
12. Logical Mysticism, Western Division of American Philosophical Association, 4 May 1968.
13. Police as Ambiguous Agents, Society for Philosophy and Public Affairs, St. Louis, 7 May 1970.
14. Pantheism and Ontology in Wittgenstein's Early Work, Pacific Division of American Philosophical Association, 27 March 1971.
15. Grammar and Metaphysics, Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy, New Orleans, 30 October 1971.
16. Distinctive Features in Categoriae, Symposium on Modernist Interpretations of Ancient Logic, SUNY at Buffalo, 21 April 1972.
17. From Frege to Wittgenstein, Eastern Division of American Philosophical Association, 27 December 1972.
18. The Contestability of Violence, Eastern Division of American Philosophical Association, December 1974.
19. Intentionality as a Theory of Meaning, Western Division of American Philosophical Association, 26 April 1975.
20. Identity and Resemblance, American Philosophical Association, Chicago, IL, 28 April 1977.
21. The Other Sort of Meaning, Second International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, 29 August-3 September 1977.
22. The "Picture" of Language in Rousseau and Condillac, Philosophy and Literary Criticism: The Post-Structuralist Enterprise, SUNY at Stony Brook, 30 September-1 October 1977.
23. It can't be said of me at all (except perhaps as a joke) that I know that I am in pain, Creighton Club, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY, 21 October 1977.
24. Derrida on Rousseau on Writing, American Philosophical Association, New York, 27-30 December 1977.
25. Value Clarification and the Development of Character, American Society for Value Inquiry, Washington, D.C., 27 December 1978.
26. The Care and Abuse of Children, Symposium of Child Abuse, NY Foundling Hospital, New York, 19 January 1979.
27. Double Articulation and the Theory of Meaning, Fourth International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, 28 August-3 September 1979.
28. Schemata and Criteria, Fifth International Wittgenstein Symposium Kirchberg, Austria, 25-30 August 1980.
29. Wittgenstein's Legacy to Epistemology, Sixth International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, 24-30 August 1981.
30. "The poet is a penguin", Conference on Poststructuralist Theory, Brooklyn College, 10 December 1981.
31. Comments on David Hemmendinger, American Philosophical Association, Philadelphia, 28 December 1981.
32. Frege and Husserl on Meaning, Conference on Philosophy and Science in Phenomenological Perspective, Buffalo, NY, 11-13 March 1982.
33. Forms of Life, Seventh International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, 23-29 August 1982.
35. La forme de vie chez Wittgenstein, Colloque "Wittgenstein", Cerisy, France, 19-25 August 1984.
36. Comments on J. J. Katz, Conference on Naturalism and Rationality, SUNY Buffalo, 29 March 1985.
37. Form of Life as Both Natural and Transcendental, American Philosophical Association, Chicago, IL, 25-28 April 1985.
38. Tit-for-Tat as a Gandhian Strategy, Gandhi-King Society, Chicago, 26 April 1985.
39. Comments on papers at the Conference on Ethical Questions in the Professions, University of Delaware (Newark), 17 May 1985.
40. Kant and Wittgenstein, Tenth International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, August 1985.
41. Wittgenstein on Grammar and Metaphysics, 17th Annual Philosophy Symposium, CSU Fullerton, CA, 11-14 March 1987.
42. Violence and Social Order, Twelfth International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, 8-13 August 1987.
43. The Pursuit of Ideals and the Legitimation of Means: Some Notes on the Differential Translation of Ideas into Reality, Conference on Idea and Reality, Budapest, Hungary, 11-12 August 1988.
44. Wittgenstein on Science, Thirteenth International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, 14-20 August 1988.
45. Gibt es Kritische Philosophie Nach Wittgenstein?, Ludwig Wittgenstein Symposium, Volkshochschule, Brigittenau, 20-22 April 1989.
46. The Metaphysics of the Tractatus, Fourteenth International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, 13-19 August 1989.
47. Derrida: Wittgensteinian Observations, American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division, San Francisco, 28 March 1991.
48. Pugnacity and Pacifism, Keynote address for Nonviolence in a Pugnacious World, SUNY at Buffalo, 26 April 1991.
49. Comments on Sluga, Stern, and Summerfield, American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division, Portland OR, 27 March 1992.
50. Teaching Non-Violence: The AVP Experience, Conference on Non-Violence, Elon College, 5-7 October 1992.
51. In Defense of the French, European Philosophy and the American Academy, Wingspread, Racine, WI, 11-14 February 1993.
52. The Nature of Moral Theory, Symposium on the moral philosophy of Kurt Baier, Buffalo, 22 March 1993. 53. Wittgenstein's Conception of Philosophy as Grammar, Sixteenth International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, 16 August 1993.
54. Law and Love, Conference on Eros, Philia, and Agape in the Philosophy of Martha Nussbaum, Brock University, February 1994.
55. Comment on three papers, Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology, Atlanta, March 1994.
56. McGuinness on the Tractatus, 17th International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, 15-20 August, 1994.
57. Wittgenstein's View of Science, International Conference on the Vienna Circle and Contemporary Science and Philosophy: In Memory of Tscha Hung, Beijing, China, 21-24 October 1994.
58. Justice and Mercy in Iris Murdoch's The Green Knight, North American Society for Social Philosophy, Waterville ME, 10-13 August 1995.
59. Lebensformen Sind Unbestimmt und Unbestimmbar, Symposium: Der Konflikt der Lebensformen in Wittgensteins Philosophie der Sprache, Universität Passau, Germany, 22-25 November 1995.
60. Pugnacity and Politics, Sixth Annual Philosophy, Interpretation, and Culture Conference, SUNY-Binghamton, 20 April 1996.
61. Two Kinds of Politics, 19th International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, 12-18 August 1996.
- Comment on L. H. Nelson, Conference on “Can Epistemology be Naturalized?”, SUNY/Buffalo, 26-28 September 1996.
- Beginning at the Beginning, Conference on Wittgenstein’s Treatment of Knowledge in On Certainty, University of Minnesota, 11-13 October 1996.
- Politics and Anti-politics, American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division, Los Angeles, 26 March 1998.
- Vagueness, Context, and Analysis, American Philosophical Association, Central Division, Chicago, 9 May, 1998.
- Politics and Anti-politics, World Congress of Philosophy, Boston, 11 August 1998.
- The Grammar of Possibility and the Possibility of Grammar, American Philosophical Association, Pacific Division, Berkeley, 3 April 1999.
- Using AVP in the Classroom, Friends Association for Higher Education, Whittier College, June 1999.
- Wittgenstein and Kraus as Cultural Critics, Karl Kraus Symposium, Buffalo, October 16, 1999.
- The ‘Silence’ of Wittgenstein and Kraus, interdisciplinary conference on Writing the Austrian Tradition, Toronto, May 2000.
- New Paradigms for Quaker Missions: rethinking Outreach as Spirituality in Action, Friends Association for Higher Education, Earlham College, Richmond IN, June 22-25, 2000.
- Reason and Necessity, 23rd International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, August 2000.
- Reflections on Punishment, Friends Association for Higher Education, Guilford College, Wilmington NC, June 14-17, 2001.
- Living on the Edge: Wittgenstein and George Fox, 24th International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, August 2001.
- Language-Games as Categories: An Aristotelian Theme in Wittgenstein’s Later Thought, Metaphysical Society of America, 2001.
- Wittgenstein for Quakers, Friends Association for Higher Education, Haverford College, June 17, 2005.
- Speaking Truth to Power, Quaker Theological Discussion Group, Washington (DC), November 17, 2006.
- Grammar and Silence, 30th International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg, Austria, August 6-11, 2007.
Colloquium Presentations and Lectures:
Ecole Nationale Superieure (J.F.) -Paris
Erie Community College
Hobart & William Smith
L.I.U - C. W. Post
Moscow Institute of Philosophy (2)
Moscow State University
Peking University (Beijing, China)
Rosary Hill College
San Diego State (6)
Siena (Italy) (2)
Sung Kyun Kwan (Korea)
US Military Academy
Wiener Neustadt (Austria)
Special Invited Lectures and Lecture Series
1. Violence in America, Johnson Lectures, a series of four lectures, San Diego State University, April-May, 1994.
2. Jesus and Jefferson: Violence and Nonviolence in the Context of Religion and Politics, Hourani Lectures, University at Buffalo, a series of eight lectures February-April, 2004
3. Politics and Its Virtues, Hourani Lectures, University at Buffalo, a series of eight lectures September-November, 2005.
4. God Has No Politics, Paul Pfeutze Lecture, Poughkeepsie Friends Meeting, March 25, 2006. Repeated at Lancaster Friends Meeting, September 17, 2006.
1. Derrida and Wittgenstein (with Seung Chong Lee). Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.
Korean translation, 1997; second Korean printing (with minor corrections), 1999.
2. This Complicated Form of Life: Essays on Wittgenstein. LaSalle/Chicago: Open Court, 1994.
3. Wittgenstein & Approaches to Clarity. Amherst NY, Humanity Books 2006
4. Limits to Politics: Some Friendly Reminders. Buffalo NY, Center Working Papers, 2006. Second (expanded) edition, 2007.
1. Naturalism and Rationality (with Peter H. Hare). Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1986.
2. Justice, Law, and Violence (with James B. Brady). Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.
1. Jesus, Jefferson and the Task of Friends, Pendle Hill Pamphlet #250 (Wallingford, PA: 1983).
2. Nonviolence and Community: Reflections on the Alternatives to Violence Project (with Eric Reitan), Pendle Hill Pamphlet #322 (Wallingford, PA: 1995).
Refereed and Invited Articles:
1. Wittgenstein on Private Language, Phil. and Phen. Res., 20(3):389-396 (March, 1960).
Reprinted (in German) in U. Steinvorth, ed., Uber Ludwig Wittgenstein (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1968) 106-118.
Reprinted in O. R. Jones, ed., The Private Language Argument (London: Macmillan, 1971) 95-102.
Reprinted in E. D. Klemke, ed., Essays on Wittgenstein (Urbana: U. of Illinois Press, 1971) 187-196.
2. On the Rationality of Persuading, Mind, LXIX(273):163-174 (April 1960).
3. Comments on Dray's "Some Causal Accounts of the American Civil War," Daedalus, 91(3):592-598 (Summer 1962).
Reprinted in Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in History, 1964.
4. Wittgenstein on Criteria, in C. D. Rollins, ed., Knowledge and Experience (Pittsburgh: U. of Pittsburgh Press, 1964) 55-71.
Reprinted in J. Canfield, Ed., The Philosophy of Wittgenstein (New York: Garland, 1986) Vol. 7, 37-53.
5. Rejoinders, Ibid 86-87.
Reprinted in Ibid [Canfield] 66-67.
6. Criterion of Personal Identity, Journal of Philosophy, LXI(24):779-784 (December 24, 1964).
7. Mr. Alston on Hypostatic Analysis, Mind, LXXIV(296):585-587 (October 1965).
8. Grammar and Criteria, [Abstract] in Dissertation Abstracts, 26(7):4001 (January 1966).
9. Varieties of Use and Mention, Phil. and Phen. Res., 26(2):230-238 (December 1965).
Reprinted in Zabeeh, Jacobson, and Klemke, ed., Readings in Semantics (Urbana: U. of Illinois Press, 1972).
10. Max Black, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Paul Edwards, ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1967) Vol. 1, 318-319. (Reprinted 1972).
11. Rules, Ibid., Vol. 7, 231-233. (Reprinted 1972).
12. Subject and Predicate, Ibid., Vol. 8, 33-36. (Reprinted 1972).
13. Analyticity and Grammar, Monist, 51(3):397-425 (July 1967).
Reprinted in L. W. Beck, ed., Kant Studies Today (LaSalle: Open Court, 1969) 245-273.
14. Philosophy and Pacifism, Philosophy Today, XI(2/4):142-147 (Summer 1967).
Reprinted in Offset, Denison University, Granville, Ohio, November 1967.
15. What Violence Is, The Nation, 206(26):819-822 (June 24, 1968).
Reprinted in T. Rose, ed., Violence in America (New York: Random House, 1969) 5-13.
Reprinted in J. Gould and A. Bierman, eds., Philosophy for a New Generation (New York: Macmillan, 1970).
Reprinted in James Rachels and Frank A. Tillman, ed., Philosophical Issues (New York: Harper and Row, 1972) 223-228.
Reprinted in R. A. Wasserstrom, ed., Today's Moral Problems (New York: Macmillan, 1975) 410-423.
Reprinted in J. Gould and J. Iorio, eds., Violence in Modern Literature (San Francisco: Boyd and Fraser, 1972).
Reprinted in James Rachels, ed., Moral Problems (New York: Harper and Row, 1971).
16. Violence and Lawlessness, The Humanist, XXVIII(5):31 (September/October 1968).
17. The Range of Truth and Falsity, in Robert Martin, ed., The Paradox of the Liar (New Haven: Yale U. Press, 1971) 121-126.
18. Wittgenstein's Pantheism, in E. D. Klemke, ed., Essays on Wittgenstein (Urbana: U. of Illinois Press, 1971) 123-137.
19. The Variability of the Analytic, Phil. and Phen. Res., 31(3):409-414 (March 1971).
20. Concerning Henry Veatch's "Two Logics", Phil. and Phen. Res., 32(1):105-107 (September 1971).
21. Pantheism and Ontology in Wittgenstein's Early Work, Idealistic Studies, 1(3):269-277 (September 1971).
22. Preface to J. Derrida, Speech and Phenomena (Evanston: Northwestern U. Press, 1973) ix-xxix.
Reprinted in J. Canfield, ed., The Philosophy of Wittgenstein (New York: Garland, 1986) Vol. 15, 279-299.
23. Notes for a Linguistic Reading of the Categories, in J. Corcoran, ed., Ancient Logic and Its Modern Interpretations (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1974) 27-32.
24. The Ambiguity of the Police Role, Social Praxis, 2(3-4):309-323 (1974).
25. Grammar and Metaphysics, in D. Ihde and R. M. Zaner, ed., Dialogues in Phenomenology (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1975) Vol. 5, 64-85.
27. "...that I know I am in pain", Proceedings of the Creighton Club, Fall 1977.
27. Derrida on Rousseau on Writing, Journal of Philosophy, LXXIV(11):663-673 (November 1977).
28. The Other Sort of Meaning, in Elisabeth Leinfellner, et al. eds., Wittgenstein and His Impact on Contemporary Thought, Proceedings of the Second International Wittgenstein Symposium (Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1978) 253-256.
29. Double Articulation and the Theory of Meaning, in R. Haller and W. Grassl, eds., Language, Logic, and Philosophy, Proceedings of the Fourth International Wittgenstein Symposium (Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1980) 532-535.
30. Schemata and Criteria, in E. Morscher and R. Stranzinger, eds., Ethics: Foundations, Problems, and Applications, Proceedings of the Fifth International Wittgenstein Symposium (Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1981) 410-413.
31. Wittgenstein's Legacy to Epistemology, in W. Leinfellner, et al., eds., Language and Ontology, Proceedings of the Sixth International Wittgenstein Symposium (Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1982) 230-234.
32. To Build a Just Society?, Friends Journal, 15 February 1983, 8-11.
33. Positivismo e rationalismo critico, in Aldo Gargani, ed., Il Circulo di Vienna (Ravenna, 1984) 63-76.
34. Neither Knowing Nor Not Knowing, Philosophical Investigations, 7(3):206-224 (July 1984).
35. Die Lebensform in Wittgensteins Philosophischen Untersuchungen, Grazer Philosophische Studien, 21:33-54 (1984).
36. Form of Life as Both Natural and Transcendental, [Abstract] Noûs 19(1):85 (March 1985).
37. Wittgenstein's Dualism, Teoria, 5(2):73-95 (1985).
38. Structuralism and the Challenge of Metaphor, Monist, 69(1):68-85 (January 1986).
39. Some Thoughts on Peace and Justice, Friends Journal, 1 October 1986, 9-11.
40. Wittgenstein's Reception in America, Modern Austrian Literature, 20(3/4):207-219 (December 1987).
41. Introducing Philosophy, APA Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy, January 1988.
42. Violence and Social Order, in Ota Weinberger et al., eds., Philosophy of Law, Politics, and Society, Proceedings of the 12th International Wittgenstein Symposium (Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1988) 218-233.
43. Wittgenstein on Science, in P. Weingartner and G. Schurz, eds., Philosophy and Natural Science: Borderline Questions, Reports of the 13th International Wittgenstein Symposium (Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1989) 255-258.
44. The Pursuit of Ideals and the Legitimation of Means: Notes on the Differential Translation of Ideas into Reality, in J. C. Nyiri, ed., Perspectives on Ideas and Reality (Budapest: Kiskonyvtara, 1990) 7-27.
45. Wittgenstein and the Critical Tradition, History of Philosophy Quarterly VII(2):227-240 (April 1990).
Reprinted (in Russian translation) in Logos (Moscow), Issue 5:269-284 (September 1994).
46. Wittgenstein und die kritische Tradition, in F. Wallner and A. Haselbach, eds., Wittgensteins Einfluss auf die Kultur der Gegenwart (Vienna: Braumüller, 1990) 1-19.
47. Form of Life in Wittgenstein's Later Work, Dialectica 44:175-201 (Fasc. 1-2, 1990).
48. The Metaphysics of the Tractatus, in R. Haller and J. Brandl, eds., Wittgenstein - Towards a Re-Evaluation, Proceedings of the 14th International Wittgenstein Symposium (Vienna: Verlag Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1990) Vol. I, 84-94.
49. The Pursuit of Ideals, in J. B. Brady and N. Garver, eds., Justice, Law, and Violence (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991) 134-148.
50. La forme de vie chez Wittgenstein, Fundamenta Scientiae, 10(3):329-336 (1991).
Reprinted in Renée Bouveresse-Quillot, ed., Visages de Wittgenstein (Paris: Beauchesne, 1995) 203-215.
51. Derrida's Language-games, TOPOI, 10(2):187-198 (September 1991).
52. Pugnacity and Pacifism, ACORN, IV(2):7-19 (Fall 1991).
53. Dispute Settlement Among Quakers, in Michael Chiarello, Barry L. Gan, and Thomas F. Christian, eds., Dispute Resolution in the 90s: New Partnerships, Enhanced Techniques, and Emerging Markets (St. Bonaventure, NY: St. Bonaventure University, 1991) 48-50.
54. Gandhi, Mohandas Kamarchand, in Becker and Becker, eds., The Encyclopedia of Ethics (New York: Garland, 1992) Vol 1, 396-398.
55. Pacifism, in Ibid., Vol. 2, 925-927.
56. Schweitzer, Albert, in Ibid., Vol. 2, 1130-1131.
57. Wittgenstein on Grammar and Metaphysics, in Hans Schulte and D. Richards, eds., Crisis and Culture in Post-Enlightenment Germany (Lanham, MA: University Press of America, 1993) 297-318.
58. Wittgenstein's Conception of Philosophy as Grammar, in Roberto Casati, Barry Smith and Graham White, eds., Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences (Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1994) 51-61.
59. In Defense of the French, in B. Smith, et.al., eds., European Intellectuals and the American Academy (LaSalle: Open Court 1994) 31-49.
60. Naturalism and Transcendentality: The Case of "Form of Life", in Souren Teghrarian, ed., Wittgenstein and Contemporary Philosophy (Bristol, England: Thoemmes Press, 1994) 41-69. German translation in Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 49:6 (2001), 873-888.
61. Philosophy as Grammar, in Hans Sluga and David Stern, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Wittgenstein (New York/London: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 139-170.
62. McGuinness on the Tractatus, in J. Hintikka and K. Puhl, eds., The British Tradition in 20th Century Philosophy, Proceedings of the 17th International Wittgenstein Symposium (Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 1995), 85-99.
63. What Science Meant to Wittgenstein, Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on the Vienna Circle and Contemporary Science and Philosophy (Beijing, China), forthcoming.
64. Die Unbestimmtheit der Lebensform, Wittgenstein Studien 08/2/95 (1996).
Reprinted in Wilhelm Lütterfelds and Andreas Roser, eds., Der Konflikt der Lebensformnen in Wittgensteins Philosophie der Sprache (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1999), 37-52.
65. Politics, Politics, Politics, International Studies in Philosophy, 29: 19-33 (1997)
66. Two Kinds of Politics?, in Peter Koller and Klaus Puhl, eds., Current Issues in Political Philosophy (Kirchberg: Austrian Wittgenstein Society, 1996), 140-146.
67 Introducing Philosophy, in Tziporah Kasahkoff, editor, In the Socratic Tradition, Rowman & Littlefield, 1997, pp. 7-20.
- Vagueness and Analysis, Journal of Philosophical Research, XXIV: 1-19 (1999)
- Civility, in Encyclopedia of Ethics, second edition., Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, eds., New York: Routledge, 2001.
- Nonviolence in the United States, in Violence: in America: AnEncyclopedia. Ronald Gottesmann, ed., New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1999.
71. Black, Max, in Encyclopedia of Philosophy, second edition, Donald Borchert, ed., New York: Macmillan, 2005.
72. Reason and Necessity, in Smith, Barry and Berit Brogaard (eds.), Rationality and Irrationality, Proceedingsof the 23rd International Wittgenstein Symposium. Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 2001: 120-28.
73. Ludwig Wittgenstein: Philosophical Investigations: Clarity versus Pretension, in Gracia, Jorge, Gregory Reichberg, and Bernard Schumacher (eds.), The Classics of Western Philosophy: A Reader's Guide. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003: 762-784.
74. The ‘Silence’ of Wittgenstein and Kraus, in Huemer, Wolfgang and Marc-Oliver Schuster (eds.),Writing the Austrian Traditions: Relations Between Philosophy and Literature. Edmonton: Wirth-Institute for Austrian and Central European Studies, 2003: 67-79.
75. Beginning at the Beginning, in Demeter, Tamas (ed.), Essays on Wittgenstein and Austrian Philosophy. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2004: 137-154.
76. Language-Games as Categories, in Sanford, Jonathan J. and Michael Gorman (eds.). Categories: Historical and Systematic Essays. Washington: Catholic University Press, 2004:136-47.
77. Living on the Edge: Wittgenstein and George Fox, in Haller, Rudolf and Klaus Puhl (eds.),Wittgenstein and the Future of Philosophy: a Re-assessment after Fifty Years, Proceedings of the 24th International Wittgenstein Symposium. Vienna: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky, 2002: 49-60.
78. Good and Evil in The Green Knight, in Elizabeth D. Boepple (ed.), Sui Generis: Essays Presented to Richard Thompson Hull on the Occasion of His Sixty-fifth Birthday, Author House, 2005.
79. Reflections on Types of Theory, in Lee Haring (ed.), Grand Theory in the Study of Folklore, special issue of Journal of Folklore Research, forthcoming, summer 2007.
80. Speaking Truth to Power, Quaker Religious Thought, forthcoming.
1. Review of Ludwig Wittgenstein's The Blue and Brown Books, in Philosophy and Phenomonological Research, 21(4):576-577 (June 1961).
2. Review of Erik Stenius's Wittgenstein's Tractatus, in Philosophy and Phenomological Research, 22(2):276-277 (December 1961).
3. Review of Jack Kaminsky's Language and Ontology, in Bibliography of Philosophy, XVIII(1):17 (1971).
4. Review of Nelson Goodman's Languages of Art: An Approach to a Theory of Symbols, in Bibliography of Philosophy, XVIII(2):191 (September 1971).
5. How to Think About Violence, [Review of Violence: Award-Winning Essays in the Council for Philosophical Studies Competition, by Robert Audi, Bernard Harrison, Robert L. Holmes, and Ronald Miller, ed. by Jerome Shaffer] in The Humanist, XXXII(1):39 (January/February 1972).
6. Review of Bowers and Ochs's The Rhetoric of Agitation and Control, in Philosophy and Rhetoric, 5(3):194-195 (Summer 1972).
7. Review of Alan Donagan's The Theory of Morality, in Ethics, 90(2):301-305 (January 1980).
8. Review of David Bell's Frege's Theory of Judgment, in Philosophy and Phenomonological Research, 40(4):598-600 (June 1980).
9. Review of Stanley Cavell's The Claim of Reason, in Philosophy and Phenomonological Research, 41(4):562-563 (June 1981).
10. Review of A. P. Martinich (ed.), The Philosophy of Language, in Teaching Philosophy, 8(4):356-358 (October 1985).
11. Review of M. Shapiro, The Sense of Grammar, in Transactions of the C. S. Peirce Society, 22(1):68-74 (Winter 1986).
12. Review of Joachim Schulte, Wittgenstein: Eine Einführung, in Telos, 22(2):201-204 (Summer 1989).
13. Review of B. F. McGuinness, Wittgenstein: A Life. Volume I. Young Ludwig, 1889-1921, in Partisan Review, LVII(3):486-489 (Summer 1990).
14. The Pugnacity Syndrome [review of R. Rorty Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity, and H. Putnam, Representation and Reality], in Partisan Review, LVIII(4):739-742 (October 1991).
15. Review of H. Schwyzer, The Unity of Understanding, in Canadian Philosophical Reviews, XI(6):414-416 (December 1991).
16. Review of Stephen Mulhall, editor, The Cavell Reader (Oxford, Blackwell, 1966), in Philosophical Investigations XXI: 377-381 (1998).
- Review of Dennis Patterson, Law and Truth (Oxford University Press, 1966), in Journal of Value Inquiry.
- Miscellaneous reviews in Choice.
- Review of Wolfgang Kienzler, Wittgensteins Wende Zu Seiner Spaetphilosophie: 1930-1932 (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1997), in Philosophical Investigations, 1999.
- Review of Ilham Dilman, Language and Reality: Modern Perspectives on Wittgenstein (Leuven; Peeters, 1998), in Philosophical Investigations, April 2000.
- Review of Avrum Stroll, Sketches of Landscapes: Philosophy by Example (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998), in Philosophical Investigations, 2000.
- Review of Russell B. Goodman, Wittgenstein and William James (Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press, 2002), in Transactions of the Peirce Society, 2003.
- Review of Morton G. White, A Philosophy of Culture, (Princeton University Press, 2005), in Transactions of the Peirce Society, 2006.
- Review of Allan Janik, Assembling Reminders: Studies in the Genesis of Wittgenstein’s Comcept of Philosophy (Stockholm: Santérus, 2006), forthcoming in History of Philosophy Quarterly, 2007.
1. A Letter to the President, Presbyterian Tribune, 64(4):11.
Also in Swarthmore Phoenix, Swarthmore, PA, November 4, 1948.
2. Qualifying for the Job, Inform, University (Minneapolis-St. Paul) Chapter AAUP, 1(2):25-29 (March 1960).
3. On Being Carried Away, Letter to the Editor, Spectrum, SUNY at Buffalo, 21 March 1969, 16.
4. Quinquennial Review, Supplement to the 1971 Report of the Friends World College Committee, May 1971, 1-9.
5. An Open Letter to John Lyons, 26 July 1971, circulated at the Linguistics Institute at SUNY at Buffalo, 1971.
6. More on Murdoch, Letter to the Editor, Friends Journal, 15 February 1973, 112.
7. "Heel of a Boot" (poem), Friends Journal, 15 April 1979, 2.
8. Statement Submitted by Newton Garver, Chair of the Faculty Senate, to the Presidential Evaluation Team, Reporter, 12 November 1979, 1-4.
9. "Sometime Before the Equinox" (poem), Buffalo News, 3 August 1980, F-7.
10. God is in the Details, Quaker Information Press, Fall 1980.
11. "Here Let Us Gather" (poem), Quaker Information Press, no. 4, p.5, 1981.
12. Arms Dollars Line Pockets of Rich, Letter to the Editor, Buffalo News, 25 January 1982, B-2.
13. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Future of Powell House, Report to the New York Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, July 1989.
14. Defining Democracy in Our New World, The Reporter 24:25-10 (SUNY/Buffalo, 22 April 1993).
15. Taking AVP into Class, Friends Journal, Vol. 46 #7, July, 2000, 16-17.
15. Quakers in Bolivia, Friends Journal, Vol 47 #2, February 2001, 10-13.
16. Shadows of the 60's, Buffalo Report 10 May 2003.
17. Who’s Been Reading George Fox’s Journal?, Friends Journal, Vol. 49 #6, June 2003, 21-22.
18. Freedom and Accountability, Buffalo Report 11 June 2003.
19. 9/11 Plus 30, Buffalo Report 18 September 2003.
20. Bolivia in Turmoil, Buffalo Report 15-17 October 2003. Reissued by CounterPunch
21. Bolivia at a Crossroads, Buffalo Report 5 December 2003. Reissued by CounterPunch
22. God Bless America!, Buffalo Report 25 December 2003.
23. The News and the Truth, Buffalo Report 19 May 2003.
24. Heraclitus’s Reply (poem), Buffalo Report 1 March 2004.
25. The Politics of Humiliation, Buffalo Report 30 June 2004.
26. Idolatry, Buffalo Report 1 March 2005. Reissued by CounterPunch.
27. The Anti-political Politician: Reflections on Bolivia, Buffalo Report 26 March 2005. Reissued by CounterPunch
28. Bolivia: Preparing the Third Revolution, Buffalo Report 6 June 2005.
29. Bolivia: Roadblocks to Power, Buffalo Report 12 July 2005.
30. Bolivia—Indian Triumph, Buffalo Report 19 February 2006. Reissued by CounterPunch.
31. A Genius at Work in the Andes, Buffalo Report 11 August 2006.
32. Progress in Bolivia, Buffalo Report 4 November 2004. Reissued by CounterPunch.
33. Drama in Bolivia: Evo Morales’s First Year, Buffalo Report 18 January 2007. Reissued by CounterPunch.
34. One Quaker’s Response to the Pope, Friends Journal, Vol. 52 #9, September 2006, 20-23.
35. The Aspirations of Andean Quakers, Friends Journal, Vol. 53 #2, February 2007, 15-36.
36. Quaker Indians?, Friends Journal, Vol. 53 #2, February 2007, 19.
37. Decider vs. Negotiator, Buffalo Report 4 February 2007. Reissued by CounterPunch.
38. Politics and Apartheid, Buffalo Report 9 February 2007. Reissued by CounterPunch.